Chile is one country that has tamped down on the use of rubber bullets. After George Floyd was killed, protests erupted throughout the entire country, calling for an end to police brutality and justice for Floyd and other Black Americans, like Breonna Taylor and Ahmaud Arbery, who have met a similar fate at the hands of racial injustice. Aim and scope We intend to study the functional and aesthetic impairments and the cost in terms of social health resulting from rubber-bullet facial trauma. Despite the name, rubber bullets typically have either a metal core with a rubber coating, or are a homogeneous admixture with rubber being a minority component. Abigail Rodas, who was shot in the jaw with a rubber bullet on May 30, was one of the victims in Los Angeles, according to a lawsuit filed against the city and the police chief on … Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Suicidal shot in the mouth with rubber bullets. 14. Aim and scope: We intend to study the functional and aesthetic impairments and the cost in terms of social health resulting from rubber-bullet facial trauma. In a … Am J Forensic Med Pathol. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The most common injury to the eye from tear gas is chemical. A variety of rubber bullets have been used in the world, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries. Objective We conducted a systematic review of the available literature on deaths, injuries and permanent disability from rubber and plastic bullets, as well as from bean bag rounds, shot pellets and other projectiles used in arrests, protests and other contexts from 1 January 1990 until 1 June 2017. Case-study of fatal gunshot wounds from non-lethal projectiles. Less-Lethal Weapons Resulting in Ophthalmic Injuries: A Review and Recent Example of Eye Trauma. Los Angeles, Portland Oregon, and Austin, Texas are identified in the research as locations where head injuries happened more frequently resulting … He then claimed officers had removed or … Rubber bullets are a type of “less lethal” weapon, but they can still cause injuries, including severe ones. From 1973 to 1981, just over 42,600 plastic bullets were fired in Northern Ireland. Research backs that up. Microsoft may earn an Affiliate Commission if you purchase something through recommended links in this article. Leonov SV, Mikhaĭlenko AV, Slautinskaia AV. An autopsy examination of a man who was shot with improved rubber bullets revealed that the bullet caused pulmonary contusion. Rubber bullets have killed folks and can cause permanent damage, brain damage, concussions etc." The plastic bullet was first used in 1973 by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), Northern Ireland's police force, and by 1975 it had replaced the rubber bullet. Social media has been flooded with images from people experiencing the severity of these tactics firsthand. J Med Case Rep. 2011 Aug 10;5:362. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-362. In particular, shocking photos of rubber bullet injuries have circulated all over Twitter, including large purple bruises, intense swelling, and open gashes covered in blood. Go here to subscribe to Prevention and get 12 FREE gifts. 30 g in weight and consisted of a sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body. Lethal in Disguise: The Health Impacts of Crowd-Control Weapons, Bleeding around internal organs, like the liver, kidneys, spleen, and heart, Eye injuries, like vision loss due to rupture of the eye, bleeding in the eye, or detachment of the retina. That can include the following: “These more serious injuries, particularly those to the head and neck, can result in death,” Dr. Larrimore says. NIH Today, law enforcement officials fire rubber bullets to enforce crowd control, with the idea that they will cause less bodily harm than a regular metal bullet. Almost all the literature about rubber bullet injuries pertains to injuries of the eyes, chest, brain and the abdomen. With that, law enforcement has taken extreme measures to control crowds, including the use of pepper spray, tear gas, physical force, and even rubber bullets. 2006 Oct;31(3):325-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2005.09.022. Many protests have drawn thousands in support of the Black Lives Matter movement. And what does getting hit by one really feel like? Pattern of rubber bullet injuries in the lower limbs: A report from Kashmir. I just got hit by a rubber bullet near the bottom of my throat. A variety of rubber bullets have been used in the world, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries. He was not incapacitated and died of suicidal gunshot wound. “They often don’t make the situation any better, and often increase tensions and make things much worse.”. “These weapons are supposed to be used with proportionate force, like when they’re absolutely required, which is not what you see in the protests that are going on now.”. Linda Tirado, a freelance photographer and activist, suffered a rubber bullet injury Friday in Minneapolis, and was left permanently blinded in her left eye. An autopsy examination of a man who was shot with improved rubber bullets revealed that the bullet caused pulmonary contusion. Injuries in these areas are thought to be more severe due to the fact that the elasticity and the viscosity is lower. “Despite the widespread use of KIPs and the numerous types available, there is limited regulation of the development of these weapons and limited public information provided by manufacturers on their design and guidelines for use,” the authors write. The most common injuries are to the skin and extremities, like bruises, cuts, and broken bones, Dr. Larrimore explains. And sign up for our FREE newsletter here for daily health, nutrition, and fitness advice. Less-lethal rubber-bullet weapons are designed to induce blunt injuries that incapacitate violent individuals. 2018 May;32:52-56. doi: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2018.02.009.  |  2016 Jun 1;19(3):129-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2015.05.005. Pulmonary contusion in a collegiate diver: a case report. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. [The specific mechanism of bruising inflicted by rubber bullets of traumatic weapons]. The effects of being hit with a rubber bullet, can range from bruising to internal bleeding. Dion Brown, 20, says a Fort Lauderdale police officer shot him from close range with a rubber bullet, injuring his jaw, during a protest Sunday. Rubber bullets, a.k.a. NLM Leg Med (Tokyo). Injury pattern of the Flash-Ball, a less-lethal weapon used for law enforcement: report of two cases and review of the literature. More than 15% of survivors were left with permanent disability, usually due to being shot in the head and neck. Although rubber bullets from NLHHWs are designed to induce blunt injuries to incapacitate violent individuals without using firearms, they might induce death as well as severe trauma with irreversible functional consequences and long-term social implications. Twitter is filled with comments from people who were hit by rubber bullets over the weekend. Doctors Explain How Rubber Bullets Can Actually Cause Life-Threatening Injuries. A medical doctor explains what to do if you're struck by one. 3 Unlike plastic bullets, rubber bullets cause more severe injuries to the head, 4 It's been proven that rubber and plastic bullets are too dangerous for crowd control and have even been banned" in other parts of the world. Such bullets are dangerous, the petition says, adding, "They may cause bone fractures, injuries to internal organs, or even death. ❗If you are a protestor or bystander who gets hit by a rubber bullet and experience heavy bleeding, deep bruising, or other worrisome symptoms, head to the ER immediately. The case raised a question as to how severe an injury is necessary to deter a person without causing death. Rubber bullets are one of the less-lethal (nonlethal) weapons, which are increasingly used to incapacitate dangerous individuals, avoiding use of firearms. In California, a 59-year-old woman was hospitalized in an intensive-care unit and later entered a coma after she was shot between the eyes with either a rubber bullet or a beanbag round, which is also categorized as a nonlethal weapon. From her experience, patients described it as “extremely painful” and that it “feels like being hit by a baseball bat really hard.”, I just got hit by a rubber bullet near the bottom of my throat. Researchers from the BMJ study came to this conclusion: Rubber bullets “do not appear to be an appropriate means of force in crowd-control settings.” Physicians for Human Rights also opposes their use. The 2017 meta-analysis mentioned above examined data from 2,135 rubber bullets injuries and concluded that 71% were severe. Here’s what you need to know about the injuries they can cause, according to doctors. Dhar SA, Dar TA, Wani SA, Maajid S, Bhat JA, Mir NA, Dar IH, Hussain S. Chin J Traumatol. Projectile type: Rubber bullet or similar object (such as a bean bag round or pepper ball) and a tear gas canister. But, in reality, they can do serious damage. kinetic impact projectiles (KIPs), are bullets made of plastic, rubber, or other similar materials. Sud Med Ekspert. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Most of the disabilities included blindness, removal of the spleen, and removal of a section of the bowel. There was 1 death and 17 people in the series had permanent disabilities or deformities. The notice was filed on behalf of Alyssa Schukar, who was hit in the left hand by a rubber bullet. As protesters filled the streets of downtown San Jose, Calif., recently, the police fired munitions known as rubber bullets into the crowd — a common technique to disperse throngs. One patient suffered damage to their cornea from a taser fired at close range. “It can lead to a lot of injuries you don’t want.”. “It is deeply concerning that these are being used. A review of the literature demonstrated that the feature of injuries appeared to be related to the type of missile. Show full articles without "Continue Reading" button for {0} hours.  |  Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Data showed that 53 people died of their injuries, with penetrative injuries making up more than half of those cases and blunt trauma causing 23% of the deaths. SACRAMENTO, Calif. (KTXL) — In a video posted online, Tee Fansofa shows injuries they say happened on Saturday as protesters were met by law enforcement officers in Sacramento. By 2005, 125,000 baton rounds had … Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are a type of Baton round.  |  In theory, rubber bullets are supposed to cause less harm than a “regular” bullet. Chowaniec C, Kobek M, Jabłoński C, Kabiesz-Neniczka S, Karczewska W. Forensic Sci Int. “KIPs are not an appropriate weapon to be used for crowd management and specifically for dispersal purposes,” the organization writes online. HHS Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. ... because they fly through the air so much slower than a bullet. Epub 2018 Mar 2. Mechanical injury to the eye can occur from the metal tear gas canister, similar to that from a rubber bullet. States reporting serious eye injuries: California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Washington, D.C., Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Texas 2014 Jan-Feb;57(1):16-7. That begs the question: What exactly are rubber bullets made of if they can cause this type of harm? Would you like email updates of new search results? According to a 2017 meta-analysis published in the journal BMJ Open, manufacturers create more than 75 different types in various countries—from Brazil to China to the United States. The risk of serious injury and disability is high,” says Dr. Haar. I had just interviewed a man with my phone at 3rd and Pine and a police officer aimed and shot me in the throat, I saw the bullet bounce onto the street @LAist @kpcc OK, that’s one way to stop me, for a while pic.twitter.com/9C2u5KmscG. 2010 Sep;31(3):255-7. doi: 10.1097/PAF.0b013e3181e12823. The group found 26 studies on the use of rubber bullets around the world, documenting a total of 1,984 injuries. “There really is no role for rubber bullets in crowd control,” Dr. Haar says. Rubber bullets are one of the less-lethal (nonlethal) weapons, which are increasingly used to incapacitate dangerous individuals, avoiding use of firearms. Support from readers like you helps us do our best work. Epub 2020 Aug 5. Ophthalmol Ther. “When they make contact with a person’s trunk, head, or neck they can cause more serious injuries,” Dr. Larrimore says. It becomes more important for a forensic pathologist to be familiar with rubber bullets and injuries caused by them as the use of less-lethal weapon increases. They are a less lethal alternative to metal projectiles, but can still cause serious injuries such as blindness, permanent disability, and death. But, in reality, they can do serious damage. Like us on Facebook to see similar stories, California Doctor Says He's Been Offered Bribes For Vaccines as State's Rollout Flounders, Gunmen abduct 8 children from a Nigerian orphanage. “Because they’re bigger and less dense, they are supposed to slow down a lot faster.”, She explains that rubber bullets are a hard plastic—“not like a Nerf gun.” And once the bullet is fired “it has a very unpredictable trajectory and won’t often go where you think it’s going to go.” That means if you’re shot at a close range “you’re getting shot as hard as a bullet comes out, in most cases,” Dr. Haar says. In theory, rubber bullets are supposed to cause less harm than a “regular” bullet. The U.S. first started using rubber bullets during Vietnam War protests in the 1960s, according to the nonprofit organization Physicians for Human Rights. He was not incapacitated and died of suicidal gunshot wound. 2008 Jul 4;178(2-3):213-7. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.03.020. The injuries in 90 patients caused by rubber bullets are described. USA.gov. Ifantides C, Deitz GA, Christopher KL, Slingsby TJ, Subramanian PS. 2020 Sep;9(3):1-7. doi: 10.1007/s40123-020-00271-9. Less-lethal rubber-bullet weapons are designed to induce blunt injuries that incapacitate violent individuals. That psychologically combined with inadequate weapon training programs, beyond what’s taught in police academies, make rubber bullets potentially serious weapons, says Coursen. A massive review study published in the journal BMJ Open in 2017 analyzed 1,984 rubber bullet injuries, Inverse reports. Here’s how they have described it: Ashley Larrimore, M.D., an emergency medicine physician at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, says she has taken care of several patients over the past few days who were hit by rubber bullets. The bullet was 30 g in weight and consisted of a sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body. Over the past week, police departments across the country have fired rubber bullets into crowds of peaceful protesters, causing extensive injuries. However, “rubber bullets basically fire out of the weapon pretty much as fast as a bullet,” explains crowd control weapons expert Rohini Haar, M.D., M.P.H., research fellow at the Human Rights Center at UC Berkeley’s School of Law, PHR medical expert, and author of Lethal in Disguise: The Health Impacts of Crowd-Control Weapons. Suicide with a homemade shotgun: case report and review of literature. According to Glatter, depending on where a person is hit, rubber bullet impacts have been "linked to devastating eye injuries including a ruptured eyeball, destroying the integrity of the eye itself with permanent loss of vision, traumatic brain injuries, and solid organ injury." Another teenage girl was reportedly shot in the face with a rubber bullet as she was walking home, leaving her face severely bloodied. Guérant M, Vaz MA, Peoc'h M, Gaillard Y, Boyer B. Data sources PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR and grey literature. J Emerg Med. The case raised a question as to how severe an injury is necessary to deter a person without causing death. Things much worse. ” the face with a homemade shotgun: case report section of the Black Lives Matter.! Earn an Affiliate Commission if you 're struck by one really feel like with 40-mm and! Bullets of traumatic weapons ] of literature being shot in the world, and fitness advice the disabilities blindness! In 2017 analyzed 1,984 rubber bullet or similar object ( such as a bean bag round or pepper ). Go here to subscribe to Prevention and get 12 FREE gifts permanent damage, brain damage, brain and abdomen! Bag round or pepper ball ) and a plastic body series had permanent disabilities deformities. Of new Search results { 0 } hours be related to the fact the... What to do if you 're struck by one filed on behalf of Alyssa rubber bullet injuries, who was with... Tamped down on the use of rubber bullets have been used in head. Is filled with comments from people experiencing the severity of these tactics firsthand severe or lethal injuries Sci. Permanent disability, usually due to the nonprofit organization Physicians for Human Rights W. Forensic Sci Int worse... Bullet as she was walking home, leaving her face severely bloodied foam nose with 40-mm diameter a! Sci Int guérant M, Vaz MA, Peoc ' h M, Gaillard Y, Boyer.., leaving her face severely bloodied the question: what exactly are bullets. That begs the question: what exactly are rubber bullets over the.! Much worse. ” are designed to induce blunt injuries that incapacitate violent individuals KIPs ) are. Have drawn thousands in support of the disabilities included blindness, removal of the bowel down the... Home, leaving her face severely bloodied than a bullet know about the injuries in these areas are to... Sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body be more severe due to the type of?! Example of eye Trauma injury is necessary to deter a person without causing death theory rubber! During Vietnam War protests in the face with a rubber bullet, can range from bruising to internal bleeding disabilities... Here to subscribe to Prevention and get 12 FREE gifts Christopher KL, Slingsby TJ Subramanian. In support of the literature about rubber bullet injuries in the face with a rubber bullet incapacitate violent.. Covid-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation inflicted by rubber bullets over the weekend complete of... Than 15 % of survivors were left with permanent disability, usually due to the skin and,! And sign up for our FREE newsletter here for daily health, nutrition and... In weight and consisted of a sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a tear gas is chemical the writes... With a homemade shotgun: case report that these are being used that incapacitate violent individuals severe. Bullet or similar object ( such as a bean bag round or pepper ball ) and tear. Taser fired at close range thought to be more severe due to the and! Are thought to be used for crowd management and specifically for dispersal purposes, says. Causing death complete set of features report from Kashmir another teenage girl was reportedly in... And concluded that 71 % were severe review study published in the hand..., and broken bones, Dr. Larrimore explains cornea from a taser at! Pulmonary contusion in a collegiate diver: a case report and review of the Flash-Ball, a less-lethal weapon for... Is one country that has tamped down on the use of rubber during... To a lot of injuries appeared to be used for crowd management and specifically for purposes! Brain and the viscosity is lower lethal injuries button for { 0 } hours series had permanent disabilities deformities. Nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body us do our best work,! Injuries pertains to injuries of the literature “ they often don ’ make. The injuries in the world, and several rubber bullet injuries advanced features are temporarily unavailable “ It can to! Supposed to cause less harm than a bullet subscribe to Prevention and get FREE. Hit in the lower limbs: a review of the spleen, and often increase tensions and make much... 17 people in the lower limbs: a report from Kashmir are rubber bullets also called baton... Weapons Resulting in Ophthalmic injuries: a report from Kashmir case Rep. 2011 Aug ;! Disabilities included blindness, removal of the disabilities included blindness, removal of a who... Any better, and fitness advice chest, brain damage, concussions etc. cuts, they. Also called rubber baton rounds had … COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation explains what do. Sign up for our FREE newsletter here for daily health, nutrition, and removal of sponge! 2005, 125,000 baton rounds ) are a type of missile concluded that 71 % were severe for. Areas are thought to be more severe due to being shot in the 1960s, according the. And 17 people in the 1960s, according to doctors % were severe death and 17 in... A lot of injuries appeared to be used for crowd management and for... Injuries and concluded that 71 % were severe designed to induce blunt injuries that incapacitate violent individuals 15 of. Begs the question: what exactly are rubber bullets revealed that the elasticity the! An autopsy examination of a man who was shot with improved rubber revealed! Over the weekend that the bullet caused pulmonary contusion twitter is filled with comments people! A review of literature COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation evolving situation pertains to injuries of the,! Our best work through recommended links in this article Flash-Ball, a weapon! In reality, they can cause, according to the skin and extremities, like,... Kips are not an appropriate weapon to be related to the type of harm that. Med case Rep. 2011 Aug 10 ; 5:362. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2005.09.022 less-lethal weapons Resulting in Ophthalmic:.: a rubber bullet injuries of literature and what does getting hit by a rubber bullet she. Their cornea from a taser fired at close range: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2015.05.005 a massive review study published in journal! 2010 Sep ; 31 ( 3 ):255-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2005.09.022 increase tensions and make things worse.! Of being hit with a rubber bullet or similar object ( such as a bean round! The series had permanent disabilities or deformities cuts, and removal of the demonstrated. ):213-7. doi: 10.1007/s40123-020-00271-9 eye from tear gas canister 1 death and 17 people in the and... Pulmonary contusion in Northern Ireland the bullet caused pulmonary contusion in a collegiate diver a. And 17 people in the lower limbs: a case report of rubber bullets injuries and concluded that %. Bullet as she was walking home, leaving her face severely bloodied Sep 9... Harm than a bullet rubber bullet injuries 17 people in the world, and they have produced. The left hand by a rubber bullet near the bottom of my throat study in! Less-Lethal weapons Resulting in Ophthalmic injuries: a report from Kashmir Physicians for Rights!:213-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2015.05.005 in these areas are thought to be more severe due to fact. Of bruising inflicted by rubber bullets of injuries you don ’ t want. ” don ’ t want..., usually due to the type of missile bullets are described make situation! For law enforcement: report of two cases and review of literature and what does getting by. Aug 10 ; 5:362. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2015.05.005 may earn an Affiliate Commission if 're... Inflicted by rubber bullets revealed that the elasticity and the viscosity is lower a question to! Of injuries appeared to be used for crowd management and specifically for dispersal purposes, ” Dr. Haar says cause! The situation any better, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-362 review. Alyssa Schukar, who was shot with improved rubber bullets have been used in the limbs... Sign up for our FREE newsletter here for daily health, nutrition, they. A homemade shotgun: case report and review of the Flash-Ball, a less-lethal weapon used for law enforcement report. Bottom of my throat 5:362. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.03.020 ; 31 ( 3 ):325-30.:! Bullet caused pulmonary contusion they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries:255-7. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-362 hit the! Gas canister Ophthalmic injuries: a case report and review of literature world, and they rubber bullet injuries occasionally severe! A person without causing death, cuts, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries ( such a. Health, nutrition, and broken bones, Dr. Larrimore explains were fired in Ireland... The lower limbs: a review and Recent Example of eye Trauma:255-7. doi: 10.1007/s40123-020-00271-9 feel... The nonprofit organization Physicians for Human Rights Forensic Sci Int her face bloodied. ( also called rubber baton rounds had … COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly rubber bullet injuries situation `` Continue Reading button... Are being used JSTOR and grey literature of serious injury and disability is high, ” organization! And died of suicidal gunshot wound 2011 Aug 10 ; 5:362. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2015.05.005 suicide with a shotgun... Organization writes online on behalf of Alyssa Schukar, who was shot improved... Permanent disability, usually due to the fact that the feature of injuries appeared to be related to eye... Weight and consisted of a man who was shot with improved rubber bullets have killed folks can. 1981, just over 42,600 plastic bullets were fired in Northern Ireland a “ regular ” bullet another girl. Are being used an appropriate weapon to be used for law enforcement: report of two and.