More than one decade ago, Rightmire (1998, p 225) remarked that “[w]hether the [Chinese] skeletons should be lumped with Homo heidelbergensis is one issue; how they are related to recent Asian populations is another. Additionally, the cranial capacity of 1,120 cm3 falls between H. erectus and H. sapiens. Sørensen, Bent. Most selection pressures that have actually been observed in nature are weak in strength; alleles under strong positive selection rapidly move to fixation while alleles under strong negative selection are rapidly removed from a population (Futuyma 1986). Mendez, Fernando L., Thomas Krahn, Bonnie Schrack, Astrid-Maria Krahn, Krishna R. Veeramah, August E. Woerner, Forka Leypey Mathew Fomine, et al. 2010), and another bottleneck after 48 ka (Dalén et al. Modern human origins: progress and problems. Fagundes, Nelson J. R., Nicholas Ray, Mark Beaumont, Samuel Neuenschwander, Francisco M. Salzano, Sandro L. Bonatto, and Laurent Excoffier. Despite its largely hyper-arid and inhospitable climate today, the Arabian Peninsula is emerging as an important area for investigating Pleistocene hominin dispersals. 's (2010) view, this H. erectus‐archaic H. sapiens interface can now be pushed back to ∼400–350 ka, particularly with the recent redating of the Zhoukoudian Locality 1 H. erectus site suggesting a minimum age of ∼400 ka (Shen et al., 2009). 1997. For now, however, it would probably be better to err on the side of caution when trying to interpret the eastern Asian hominin fossil record based primarily on supposed chronological similarities and/or differences. Petralona, Arago, Atapuerca, Bodo, and Broken Hill do not display this Asian midfacial morphology (Pope, 1991, 1992). 1994. Journal of Human Evolution 65:330–333. Reconstructing Denisovan Anatomy Using DNA Methylation Maps. If the Sima de los Huesos dates to 500–600 ka (Bischoff et al. One prominent example of this dependence on climate comes from mtDNA intramatch distributions that show rapid population growth in Africa at ca. Dogandžić, Tamara, and Shannon P. McPherron. For example, building on previous observations by Hylander (1977) about Neanderthal and Inuit noses, Rae, Koppe, and Stringer (2011) found no evidence that the Neanderthal face is cold adapted. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of southern Africa. 2011), although the pattern of wet and dry periods for Africa as a whole forms a complex mosaic that frequently departs from the pattern observed in Lakes Malawi and Tangyanika (Blome et al. (1979). Demographic changes almost certainly tracked climatic conditions in both continents. 2013. A potential explanation for the apparent lack of a contraction in the effective population size of the ancestors of modern humans in Africa is that if there were in fact bottlenecks within a subdivided population in Africa, following the bottlenecks, members of dissimilar populations mixed extensively, restoring to the resulting population much of the genetic variation that existed before each bottleneck. Any test of these hypotheses faces practical limitations, including an incomplete fossil record, poor dating of some fossils, and inadequate resolution of current methods in pinpointing morphological or genetic changes to exact spots in the 100,000-year glacial and faster insolation cycles. These traits are considered to be the two primary morphologies of the pubis that distinguish sex (Phenice, 1969). There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. The first radiometric age by isochron 26Al/10Be burial dating for the Early Pleistocene Yuanmou hominin site, southern China. Nature 399:255–258. 2009). The spread of pastoralism and agricultural populations in Africa has blurred or erased these stark distinctions (Tishkoff et al. Assuming that the evolutionary development of H. heidelbergensis occurred sometime during the Middle Pleistocene, there is little to no evidence that it is a distinct biological species in the sense that it could not have interbred with the other penecontemporaneous Homo taxa. Grun et al. He thanks Yingqi Zhang for help with Figure 1 and Hyejin Yoo who drew Figure 4. (2012).View Large ImageDownload PowerPoint. Their results for East Africa are perhaps the most useful for inferences regarding the origin and dispersal of modern humans. Indeed, even once hard line multiregionalists (e.g., Wu and Poirier, 1995) have moved away from the edge and now support some degree of admixture between modern humans from Africa and indigenous archaic H. sapiens in East Asia (Wu, 2004). 2012. A similar discussion has been presented for the nearby Hexian H. erectus cranium that seems to display character traits that could align it with the late H. erectus Ngandong hominins (Huang et al., 1982), but more likely ZKD H. erectus (Pope, 1992; Wu et al., 2006). Although making a general point, Klein (2009:XX) probably puts it most succinctly when he notes “that a first occurrence should be treated as a possible accident and even a second should be regarded as a possible coincidence. U-series dating of hominin fossil-bearing Panlong Cave in Guangdong Province, southern China. For instance, when viewed from norma frontalis, Asian midfacial regions (zygion–zygion/nasion–prosthion) are characterized by “much smaller upper and lower midfaces with more horizontally oriented zygomatic bones, pronounced and more medially situated malar tubercles, a distinct incisura malaris, a more acute and inferiorly situated zygomaticomaxillary angle and a vertically shorter maxilla” (Pope, 1991, p 189). ), but no hominin fossils. Likewise, by applying a population genetics model to expectations for (neutral) change in cranial dimensions, Weaver (2012) showed that crania that had dimensions that differed by one standard deviation from modern crania could be expected by around 165 ka, which corresponds reasonably well to when most researchers agree that modern (or nearly modern) humans appear in the East African fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106:16022–16027. The skel-etal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified asHomo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits6–8. Humans that are different from Homo erectus evolved first in Africa or western Eurasia. 31 The effect of climate change on the tempo and mode of early hominids dispersals 32 from Africa during the Early and Middle Pleistocene is one of the main interests in 33 paleoanthropology and Paleolithic archaeology (Behrensmeyer, 2006). South African Archaeological Bulletin 44:17–22. 1994; Rightmire 1996) and, intriguingly, marked technological advances represented by precociously early blade production and core technology in the Kapthurin Formation at Lake Baringo (Johnson and McBrearty 2010; Tryon and McBrearty 2006). A partial maxilla of a juvenile was also excavated from Xujiayao. A complete human pelvis from the Middle Pleistocene of Spain. In 1958, local farmers excavated an archaic H. sapiens cranium from Shizishan near Maba village, Shaoguan Municipality, Guangdong Province, southeastern China (Wu and Poirier, 1995). Key events in genetic evolution, ages of fossil specimens, oxygen isotope stage (OIS) curves, and dust-flux data from the Arabian Sea. (2012) proposed that this reduction in body mass may have been an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle that favored energy efficiency. 500,000 to 400,000 years ago (Middle Pleistocene), archaic humans split off from other groups of that period living in Africa and East Asia, ultimately settling in … Hawks, John, Eric T. Wang, Gregory M. Cochran, Henry C. Harpending, and Robert K. Moyzis. Changyang, 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. (2007) simulated several scenarios for the origin of modern humans with a sample of 50 autosomal loci that were subsequently compared with observed patterns of variation in human nuclear loci. More than one half century ago, the venerable Ernst Mayr (1950, p. 115) made the same suggestion when he wrote “[v]ernaculars, such as ‘Steinham man’ or ‘Piltdown man,’ are just as useful and much less misleading. Cohen, Andrew S., Jeffrey R. Stone, Kristina R. M. Beuning, Lisa E. Park, Peter N. Reinthal, David Dettman, Christopher A. Scholz, et al. Current Anthropology 47:597–620. Fossil record of early modern humans in East Asia. The major uplift of the Himalayas occurred sometime during the Neogene (Fort, 1996; Dennell, 2009), which served as a formidable barrier throughout the Quaternary. Periods of high dust flux correspond to less precipitation, less vegetation, fewer people, and thus rapid genetic drift. The Upper Paleolithic of Mongolia: Recent finds and new perspectives. Evaluating claims for an early peopling of the Americas: the broader context. American Journal of Human Genetics 92:454–459. It should be noted that I am not suggesting we sink western Eurasian and African H. heidelbergensis back into archaic H. sapiens. 2012. The remains that have been uprooted at the Hualongdong site are human fossils, animal fossils, and stone tools (Hays, 2015). Drift slows in large populations but accelerates in small populations and can override the signal of all but the strongest selective pressures. 2010). The hominin fossils from the middle Pleistocene may represent a fossil species or simply a transition-al grade between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. An average age for the Jinniushan archaic H. sapiens locality has also been pushed back to ∼260 ka (Chen et al., 1994; Lu, 2003; Rosenberg et al., 2006) and Maba back to ∼237 ka (Gao et al., 2007). A Middle Pleistocene hominin of Serbia: Internal structure of our early ancestor's teeth can be reliably classified into various hominin taxa 8 March 2016 New specimens, especially from areas less well represented in the fossil record, can inform the debate on morphological changes to the skeleton and teeth and the phylogenetic course of human … The lower‐lying Qinling mountain range, which is east of the Himalayas, would also have formed a barrier. In this article, I refer to the former area as Northeast Asia and the latter region as SE Asia. Chaoxian, 3. Trauth, Martin H., Juan C. Larrasoaña, and Manfred Mudelsee. An unshakable Middle Paleolithic? Its mandibular body is tall and thick anteriorly. Weaver, Timothy D., Charles C. Roseman, and Chris B. Stringer. The anterior teeth are heavily worn and attributed to paramasticatory use, a trait found in many Neandertal fossils and other archaic H. sapiens (Brace, 1964; Brose and Wolpoff, 1971). A second scenario argues that H. erectus is ancestral to H. antecessor, which in turn gave rise to H. heidelbergensis in Europe and H. rhodesiensis in Africa (Bermudez de Castro et al., 1997; Arsuaga et al., 1999). 2). Cruciani, Fulvio, Beniamino Trombetta, Andrea Massaia, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Daniele Sellitto, and Rosaria Scozzari. Journal of Human Evolution 63:121–126. By the end of that time span, Neanderthals and modern humans clearly differed physically and perhaps behaviorally. The answer seems to be that climatic conditions did not favor a large, interconnected population in Africa between 125–ca. In Africa, oscillations in precipitation were more crucial than temperature, and paleoclimatic records show that precipitation fluctuated dramatically in Africa during the Pleistocene. Lamb, Henry F., C. Richard Bates, Paul V. Coombes, Michael H. Marshall, Mohammed Umer, Sarah J. Davies, and Eshete Dejen. incisors. Journal of Human Evolution 63:577–585. (2012) suggest that the last interval in East Africa was interrupted by a wet period around 55–50 ka. Analysis of the presence/absence of individual traits has limitations, particularly because it is clear that many traits are interrelated (see discussion below). In contrast, the mandibular dentition of Jebel Irhoud 3, a juvenile late archaic hominin from Morocco dating to 160 ka with affinities to modern humans (Hublin 2001; Hublin and Tillier 1981), preserves evidence of a slower, modern pace of dental development (Smith et al. The occipital fragment (upper left squamous region) is morphologically indistinguishable from archaic and modern H. sapiens (Demeter et al., 2005). Burnett, Allison P., Michael J. Soreghan, Christopher A. Scholz, and Erik T. Brown. Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioral contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. 2010), stand out as signal achievements. 2009. ———. 2011. The holotype of H. heidelbergensis is the Mauer mandible, which was discovered in Germany in 1907 and originally described by Otto Schoetensack (1908). Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. The Chaoxian hominin teeth do not display any character traits that might align them with Neandertals (Bailey and Liu, 2010). These late, western Neanderthal mtDNA sequences have a coalescent age of 58 ka (the end of OIS 4) with a 95% CI 54–77 ka. This seems to have happened many times in the past, with conditions in OIS 2 serving as a case in point (Brooks and Robertshaw 1990; Deacon and Lancaster 1988). The two processes are not mutually exclusive, and both often act on a population at the same time. When brain size is scaled to body mass, it is also intermediate between H. erectus and H. sapiens (Rightmire, 2004). The biogeographic range reconstructions suggest the presence of a geographically widespread, mid-Pleistocene ancestor to humans, Neanderthals, H. heidelbergensis and H. rhodesiensis. Pp. Our results underscore that the total pattern of Neandertal-derived morphology was not achieved at the beginning of the MIS 7 and suggest a … After that, all three populations experienced bottlenecks, although the one that affected the ancestors of the Yoruba appears to have been less severe and allowed an earlier recovery. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. Stringer (2012) argues that the younger age is supported by the mosaic presence of many distinctive Neanderthal cranial, dental, and postcranial features in the sample. Morphological adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominids. 2011. (2012, with permission from Elsevier) with two periods of a wet Sahara coinciding with periods of low sea level (following Rohling et al. Although an estimate, the occipital angle falls between ZKD H. erectus and modern humans. Detecting interregionally diversifying natural selection on modern human cranial form by using matched molecular and morphometric data. A, Geographical regions in Africa adapted from Blome et al. Most paleoanthropologists familiar with the eastern Asian record (e.g., Wolpoff et al., 1984; Pope, 1991, 1992; Wu and Poirier, 1995; Etler, 1996, 2004) often use the terms “archaic,” “early,” or “premodern” to refer to hominin fossils that are not quite modern in morphology, but yet would not be considered “classic” H. erectus sensu lato. The evidence from Europe and Africa currently favors the scenario where H. erectus is ancestral to H. heidelbergensis, which in turn gave rise to H. neandertalensis in Europe and modern H. sapiens in Africa (Stringer, 2002; Rightmire, 2008). Insightful comments by conference participants, two anonymous reviewers, and Steve Kuhn helped to refine the ideas presented here; any remaining faults are my own. 2011), although an extremely rare Y-chromosome haplotype from an African American man was recently reported that coalesces with other Y chromosomes at 338 ka (Mendez et al. In general, the teeth are considered to be large, with an occlusal morphology retaining primitive features (e.g., developed P4 accessory ridges, accessory fissures, and crests on the molars) of other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins (Bailey and Liu, 2010). 2012). Lest one think that Neanderthals and Denisovans were fundamentally different from modern humans in the face of climatic instability, it is important to realize that some recent research to model effective population size in modern human populations based on genomic data suggests that both the ancestors of living Europeans and Chinese experienced one or more severe bottlenecks between 40 and 20 ka such that the effective population size of each of these populations shrank to a size of approximately during this interval before rebounding to a higher size (to Ne between 11,000 and 50,000) during the Holocene (Li and Durbin 2011). They have had numerous labels applied to them over the years: archaic Homo sapiens, archaic humans, pre-modern humans and even late Homo erectus. Archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens are the terms used most frequently to refer to the eastern Asian hominins that cannot be allocated to either H. erectus or modern H. sapiens. Abrupt return of the summer monsoon 15,000 years ago: new supporting evidence from the lower White Nile Valley and Lake Albert. Only repeated, independent, mutually consistent occurrences can document a reliable pattern.” If the book is to be firmly closed on Yuanmou, then similar vertebrate and trace fossils from similar spatiotemporal facies need to be found. A. Dahlberg and T. M. Graber, eds. Hominin fossils from the African mid-Pleistocene are rare despite abundant Acheulean tools in Africa and apparently African-derived hominins in Eurasia between 1.0 and 0.5 million years ago (Ma). The two primary conclusions drawn from this review are as follows: 1) little evidence currently exists in the eastern Asian Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record to support their assignment to H. heidelbergensis; and 2) rather than add to the growing list of hominin fossil taxa by using taxonomic names like H. daliensis for northeast Asian fossils and H. mabaensis for Southeast Asian fossils, it is better to err on the side of caution and continue to use the term archaic H. sapiens to represent all of these hominin fossils. fossils in Peninsular Malaysia: Biogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications. From the early to mid-Middle Pleistocene, hominin remains found in the Asian continent are mostly assigned to Homo erectus (Kaifu et al., 2005;Martin … Yet a third scenario excludes H. heidelbergensis and favors the view that H. rhodesiensis/H. 2002. Although other metric data is available for the North Korean hominin fossils, how the measurements match western terminology is still being ascertained. However, in some cases, they found that certain morphological features could not be readily explained by neutral genetic expectations. In the foreground Homo erectus, stegodon, hyenas, and Asian rhinos are depicted. Our results indicate that the Hexian teeth are metrically and morphologically primitive and overlap with H. ergaster and East Asian Early and mid-Middle Pleistocene hominins in their large dimensions and occlusal complexities. A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. 2007. These human origins models are well documented elsewhere (e.g., Weidenreich, 1943; Wolpoff et al., 1984, 2001; Cann et al., 1987; Stringer and Andrews, 1988; Pope, 1992; Frayer et al., 1993; Etler, 1996, 2004; Lahr, 1996; Hawks et al., 2000; Stringer, 2002; Templeton, 2002, 2005; Trinkaus, 2005; Curnoe, 2007). Science 334:89–94. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens. Weaver, Timothy D. 2012. A more parsimonious approach may be to continue to refer to these hominins as archaic H. sapiens, and in terms of their regional variation, as Dali man and Maba man. For example, in eastern Asia, these hominin fossils have been classified as archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens. Population changes across the Neanderthal-to-modern-human transition in western France: a reply to Dogandžić and McPherron (2013). The problem may not be intractable, however, because during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, recurrent 100,000-year-long glacial cycles drove climate change and almost certainly affected hominin populations. Stiner, Mary C. 2013. Tangshan, 15. The human chin revisited: what is it and who has it? - "Fossil herbivore stable isotopes reveal middle Pleistocene hominin palaeoenvironment in ‘Green Arabia’" Activity, climate, and postcranial robusticity: implications for modern human origins and scenarios of adaptive change. Modeling effects of local extinctions on culture change and diversity in the Paleolithic. 2011. Life without the Movius Line: The structure of the East and Southeast Asian Early Palaeolithic. However, the Hexian teeth differ from H. ergaster in features such as conspicuous vertical grooves on the labial/buccal surfaces of the central incisor and the upper … These populations persisted in the Far East until late in the Middle Pleistocene, while in the West, the species disappeared at a relatively early date. Arsuaga, Juan-Luis. They have had numerous labels applied to them over the years: archaic Homo sapiens, archaic humans, pre-modern humans and even late Homo erectus. However, it might be a useful exercise to consider these late Middle Pleistocene hominins allotaxa for H. heidelbergensis (western Eurasia and Africa) and archaic H. sapiens (eastern Asia) (see allotaxa discussion in Jolly, 2001). A case in point may be the distinct canine fossa, which appears in the Gran Dolina H. antecessor fossils and may have later become a prominent feature of archaic H. sapiens in eastern Asia, though it should be noted that the character was identified in Yunxian H. erectus as well (Etler, 2004). L. Barham and K. Robson-Brown, eds. (2005) found that the Chaoxian and Ma U'Oi teeth could not be classified with the western Old World H. heidelbergensis and/or Neandertals. 2003. By the end of that time span, Neanderthals and modern humans clearly differed physically and perhaps behaviorally. Taphonomic analysis of the associated faunal assemblage suggested abundant evidence of efficient hunting and butchering of horse carcasses (Norton and Gao, 2008a). Neandertal talus bones from El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain): A 3D geometric morphometrics analysis. 6. London: Allen Lane. The status of Homo heidelbergensis (Schoetensack 1908). However, the mastoid angle for at least two of the parietals (nos. Many authorities prefer the term “marine isotope stage” for this sequence because the marine sequence is the longest and most complete, but in light of the importance of ice cores in illuminating the last 300 kyr, I have used the older and more inclusive oxygen isotope stage (OIS) throughout this paper. 2010; Scholz et al. There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. 6 and 10) are thinner than H. erectus, but thicker than modern humans. Recent papers have produced a range of estimates for when the ancestors of Neanderthals and modern humans split, ranging from ∼835 ka for the average divergence for autosomal sequences (Green et al. Four hominin teeth (I 1, C 1, P 3 and P 3) recovered from the late Middle Pleistocene cave site of Panxian Dadong. Hublin, J.-J., and A. M. Tillier. The Yokpo Daehyundong hominin fossils consist of frontal, occipital, and parietal fragments of a juvenile estimated to be 7–8 years of age at time of death (Fig. Based on tooth eruption and wear, the estimated age of the individual is about 30 years (Wu and Poirier, 1995) or more conservatively, a young‐ to middle‐aged adult (Bailey and Liu, 2010). The results obtained enable us to depict an astonishing movie printed in rock, describing some body features and common moments of the everyday movements of a hominin who lived about 350 ka. Primarily because of this mosaic of morphological characteristics and partly because of its assumed geological age, the Ma U'Oi lower M1 is considered to be from an archaic H. sapiens (Demeter et al., 2004). If selection was the crucial factor driving change in the lineages of Neanderthals or modern humans, then major changes in anatomy in each lineage should emerge during periods that favor large population numbers. 3, mandible nos 4, 6, and femur, Cranial fragments, partial maxilla, loose teeth, 1. Periods of low dust flux indicate more precipitation, more vegetation, more animal biomass, and more people. The nature of hominin biological evolution during the Middle Pleistocene is one of the most debated topics in paleoanthropology today. Bristol, UK: Western Academic & Specialist Press. The site was discovered during field surveys conducted by the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1974 and subsequently excavated in 1976, 1977, and 1979 (Jia et al., 1979; Norton and Gao, 2008a). The effective population size for the autosomal genes in the entire population is expected to be four times that of mtDNA (i.e., and 8,000 in the western and eastern subpopulations, respectively). The best-fitting model produced a series of posterior estimates for demographic and historical parameters, including the age of the speciation event that produced modern humans (median: 141,455; 95% CI: 103,535–185,642), the age of the migration from Africa (median: 51,102; 95% CI: 40,135–70,937), the age of the colonization of the Americas (median: 10,280; 95% CI: 7,647–15,945), the size of the archaic African population (median: 12,772; 95% CI: 6,604–20,211), the population size during the bottleneck during speciation (median: 600; 95% CI: 76–1,620), the size of the bottleneck when leaving Africa (median: 462; 95% CI: 64–1,224), and the size of the bottleneck when leaving Asia to settle the Americas (median: 452; 95% CI: 71–1,280). 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