Start studying Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases by Alastair Norcross. )�=���zaԿ�*n���@{`/J��� �~�c����-GeRF��մ_��l�zʂ�����1ԦZ�~ޠ�V�o�b��ho��7����t"L��݇_ͬ�W �w�~!N2j���n��a?�5sq[��i�����Hqڵ_j�M���*�ú�!v���*.2�h8V��\4�Λ�ym2YL�4�Mc�-�v��JKE For more information, see Professor Norcross's personal website and CV. Norcross further analyzes the “claim that humans have a superior ethical status to animals”, i.e. Write. Other philosophers, such as Bentham and Mill, question whether rationality is necessary for the extension of moral rights, and propose sentience as alternative criteria. Singer’s theory argues for the equal consideration of rights for all species, and considers it discriminatory to deny the rights of animals. very, very interesting, thanks. Log in Sign up. All of theses “ends” within a given community or society create a “systematic union of different rational beings through common laws” (p. 233). The argument from marginal cases (also known as the argument from species overlap) is a philosophical argument within animal rights theory regarding the moral status of non-human animals. a. Notions such as right and wrong are not part of the fundamental subject matter of moral theory, but are constructed in a context-relative fashion out of the basic comparative judgments. Create . This perspective has been prevalent since Aristotle’s virtue ethics, where he declares the ability to reason to be a unique human trait, and thus “the human function is the soul’s activity which expresses reason…” (p. 304). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. 19 See Norcross, Alastair, “ Rights Violations and Distributive Constraints: Three Scenarios,” The Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76, no. Learn. x���vG���x Scientia Institute Rice University 855 views That is, if you consider courses like, “Philosophy and the Simpsons” and “Animal Rights,” to be philosophy. Norcross Against Factory-Farming 1. Cohen, Carl. One of his moral principles, the Practical Imperative, demands the following: “act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a mean” (133-34). Therefore, “the appeal to differential human sympathy illustrates a purely descriptive psychological difference between the behavior of Fred and that of someone who knowingly consumes factory-raised meats” (p. 236). John Basl, Gina Schouten, Can We Use Social Policy to Enhance Compliance with Moral Obligations to Animals?, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 10.1007/s10677-018-9895-5, (2018). b. it gives him a compound that is good for his health. If an elderly man with dementia has lost his ability to reason, it is not justified to treat him immorally. What is it then, that makes the interests of human beings superior to those of animals? The only way he is able to experience this pleasure again is by torturing puppies for the chocolate-activating hormone, “cocoamine”. 4 0 obj According to Regan, these species are owed at least the respect of this value. It’s argued that dismissing moral rights to animals because they cannot return the consideration is an issue of self-interest, not morality–just because one cannot serve another’s self-interest does not mean they have no moral standing. This excellent anthology grew out of a 2011 workshop held in Regan's honor and is dedicated to him. He also does some work in areas of applied ethics, such as abortion, euthanasia, and animal rights (though, like Bentham and Peter Singer, he regards all natural rights as nonsense, sometimes on stilts). All methods of slaughter may be seen as imposed suffering, regardless of how humane, but if minimal suffering was imposed and respect for the animals was demonstrated, meat eating may still be permissible. Norcross explains that these theories, which use rationality as criterion for moral standing, are problematic–particularly when discussing marginal cases. a. What he calls the “kingdom of ends” is his idea of the moral community; only “ends in themselves” are members of this kingdom. Alastair Norcross is a very fancy name. Ruth Friedman (ed.) A pdf of the article is actually available online, here: http://faculty.smu.edu/jkazez/animal%20rights/norcross-4.pdf. Mary Anne Warren claims that rationality is morally relevant because “it provides greater possibilities for cooperation and for the nonviolent resolution of problems” (243). These arguments are used in the debate over animal rights, and can be examined through Alastair Norcross’ article Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. c. it gives him a compound that enhances his gustatory pleasure. In other words, this sympathy explains how people feel towards puppies, but not how people ought to treat them. René Descartes also considers the faculties of the mind to be a determining factor in moral standing. “Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases.” Philosophical Perspectives 18, (2004): 229-245. Dog fighting. Whether or not animals and nonhuman species are considered a part of the moral community has influenced what rights, if any, are extended to them. What widespread practice does Norcross argue is morally equivalent to Fred's torture of puppies? He seems to recover just fine until he discovers that he can no longer enjoy the taste of chocolate. Norcross is Rice University’s own far-left, moonbat philosophy professor. Bezüglich einer Eigenschaft, die zu einer ethischen Unterscheidung vorgeschlagen wird, sind dann solche Menschen, die die Eigenschaft nicht haben oder solche Tiere, die sie haben, die Grenzfälle. Ends-in-themselves is another name for “moral agents”, or only those who are rational beings. He calls this discrimination “speciesism”, and compares it to sexism and racism. Puppies, Pigs and People, a piece by Alastair Norcross, bring to question the treatment towards livestock and what is immoral about the process. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Since nonhuman species are only physical things and physical things do not have moral standing, it follows, that nonhuman species are not owed any ethical treatment. This excellent anthology grew out of a 2011 workshop held in Regan's honor and is dedicated to him. Which of the following objections does Norcross not consider? alastair norcross the status quo from within a natural rights framework, and will argue that all such attempts fail. Consequently, animals are placed in the “means” category. ( Log Out /  ( Log Out /  ( Log Out /  Shasta Gaughen (ed.) stream Animal Rights. I would agree with Norcross’ conclusion, that rationality is not necessary to be a moral patient, and that being a moral patient (a sentient being) is sufficient for moral consideration and ethical treatment. There are multiple possible responses, such as ignorance to the suffering imposed on factory-farmed animals versus Fred’s full awareness of the torture, as well as the insignificant difference one would make by becoming vegetarian compared to the drastic impact Fred would make by not eating chocolate. Utilitarianism principles are based in promoting the greatest amount of happiness and limiting the most pain by assessing interests. These arguments are used in the debate over animal rights, and can be examined through Alastair Norcross’ article Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. Norcross graduated from Oxford University in 1983 and earned his Ph.D. at Syracuse University in 1991 under the supervision of Jonathan Bennett. Alastair Norcross Tom Regan’s criterion for inherent value is being the “experiencing subject of a life” (ESL). He compares the “cruelty” to the puppies to the meat industry and how it is no different then him slaughtering his animals (puppies). - 2005 - Greenhaven Press. Log in Sign up. �qV�ZƛU}���D�Fە�ɪ����*j�6$}.ZL��ɇl��cE'��T���}�M�A�[�Np桛�"f�� aCT4 �A��L{��-���V��O.��f�]_��ېI��y1����k��Đe&� �(:��^:cij_rSkm�`E%2����y%�lp����/��'L ��O32k�A)�� b. Norcross questions why a human’s ability to reason gives his or her interests greater weight: “Why should we think that the possession of a certain level or kind of rationality renders the possessor’s interest of greater moral significance than those of a merely sentient being?” (242). %��������� In Norcross's opening story, Fred tortures puppies because. There is a double standard here, in how we attribute moral standings to human and nonhuman species; if we are not willing to consider marginal humans and animals of the same intellect to have equal ethical consideration (none), then there must be other criteria which better attributes morality. Both humans and nonhuman species are sentient beings, in that they can experience pleasure and pain. 2004. Browse. A Rational Defense of Animal Experimentation. Norcross’ Defense for Animal Rights I. %PDF-1.3 that human interests are more important, because they are rational beings (p. 237). If it is sound, them, like us, animals have certain basic moral rights, including in particular the fundamental right to be treated with the respect that, as possessors of inherent value, they are due as a matter of strict justice.” Alastair Norcross: Puppies, Pigs and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. d. Medical research. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> A brief discussion of Norcross's essay. Education and career. The last of five proposed differences is that puppies have more moral value than other animals, and is argued from the basis of rationality and sympathy. Nonhuman species are not rational beings, so they cannot be considered moral agents or ends. intense suffering every year for precisely this end. He is a defender of utilitarianism. Alastair Norcross (Seen here declaring an end to major combat operations in the war on kantianism) I arrived in Boulder in August 2007, ... and animal rights. Amimal Farm 610 Words | 3 Pages. Norcross states that the “essence of morality is reciprocity,” however this is not “because it serves my interests, but because it serves the interests of all” (244). Descartes theory separates the world into “two fundamental types of substances, ‘minds’ and ‘bodies’” (Desjardins, 99). Will have to look out the Norcross article to have a proper read later, Thank you so much! This principle implies that while one has an ethical obligation to respect other persons, he or she does not have a moral duty to animals. The slaughter of animals continues when a sheep dies after it confesses to having urinated in the drinking pool. In a highly provocative and creative paper, Alastair Norcrossmakes the case that purchasing and eating factory-farmed meat is morally comparable to torturing puppies for gustatory pleasure, and meat-eaters who realize this ought to become vegetarians (or at least give up factory farmed-meat). However, Descartes does not consider animal and plant species to have minds, rather that they are only ‘bodies’ or a part of the physical realm. senile, intellectually disabled). Animal Rights Animal Rights Alastair Norcross’ \Puppies, Pigs and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases" Nathan Kellen University of Connecticut April 7th, 2015. Alastair Norcross is an associate professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado at Boulder, specializing in normative ethics, applied ethics, and political philosophy. Joel Marks - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 42 (s1):S16-S18. Related. - Humans have moral capacities which gives us right but does not give rights to non-human animals because they do not have moral capacities. c. Eating factory-farmed meat. Norcross, Alastair. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Still, one may argue that while animals are sentient beings, it does not make sense to consider their interests equally to the interests of humans. Thus, “whatever kind and level of rationality is selected as justifying the attribution of superior moral status to humans will either be lacking in some humans or present in some animals” (239). Norcross’ paper, “Puppies, Pigs, and People” begins with the story of Fred, who is on trial for animal abuse. An animal’s inability to cooperate and act as a moral agent should not negate his or her status as a moral patient; instead, this lack of agency “tells us about how to give their interest equal consideration” (244). Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. When an intelligent ape demonstrates the use of reason,  people do not attribute the ape with the same moral status as themselves. a. he enjoys it. Therefore, animals are extended moral standing because they have the ability to suffer. Finally, I will turn to social contract theory, which appears to hold out the most hope for the defender of the status quo with respect to our treatment of animals. Similar to Kant’s theory, Descartes conclusion implies that an animal “can be treated without concern for its well-being” (99). Sentience refers to whether or not something can feel pleasure and pain; if it can, it has at least one interest–to avoid pain–which may imply an ethical duty to these subjects. �E��=�>��H��2E.X�ʊ̸_2�~����K?T�N��~9�F�2돲��m���u�������owY�n�������d��>����"+�tZNz�U�����`:�G1.����*��F �꿘��޼����(ʡ��V?�/�bҿz����n�z��t�'?|��ҨW/߾a`�׿������.�BZ`���o���ꭑ我a�a{�_��]�/���bT�r2��jr���4�X����7߿d}y��;[_տ���_����M�b�}U� �_.�ݾ^l�8E���v;ۊ�"j��}��.�A6���t�/��`2��� �����i1��aM����z����-��=vU��βL�2��i5��X���X��2��hܻ�&n���V+N��~. Thus, while nonhuman species are not rational, they do have inherent value like that of the “ends” in Kant’s “Kingdom of Ends”. 5. Tom Regan uses similar foundations as Descartes and Kant, but critiques their theories to include nonhuman species. It’s an argument worth thinking about. By Alastair Norcross Alastair Norcross starts his essay with an example of Fred, a cocoamone depleted man, who tortures and slaughters puppies for their hormones for personal pleasure. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Puppies, Pigs and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases by Alastair J Norcross - Duration: 1:34:22. I have edited (with Bonnie Steinbock) an anthology entitled Killing and Letting Die (Fordham: 1994). While the average, healthy human is capable of reason, there are some members of the species who do not retain their higher faculties (e.g. Alastair Norcross: Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. Thomson's argument appears in Thomson, Judith Jarvis, The Realm of Rights (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 166 –67. In the animal rights view, if a being is capable of suffering, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. Thus, Norcross concludes, rationality “will fail to make the case that such difference is morally relevant to the status of animals as moral patients as opposed to their status as moral agents” (244). Show More. - This capacity for moral judgement does not arise in the animal world. STUDY. Norcross’ article tells the fictional story of Fred, who after being in an accident, lost his ability to taste and enjoy chocolate. Keeping animals in zoos. idea and a movement that asserts that animals should be able to live free of human interference and that they should never be exploited for human gain Rights consists of 5 essays: “The Case for Animal Rights”, by Regan himself, that serves as a concise, clear statement of his deontological defense of animal rights (i.e., the ‘rights view”), “Animal Rights for Libertarians”( Jeremy R. Garrett), “Do Animals Have Rights and Does it Matter If They Don’t (Mylan Norcross goes on to… Norcross asks his readers, what makes Fred’s behavior any different than that of meat eaters and factory farmers? The Argument By Analogy: Alastair Norcross asks us to consider the following case: Fred and the Puppies Fred has an auto accident. As displayed by Aristotle, Kant, and Descartes, rational minds are what make human moral interests more important than other species’. The matters pertaining the animal rights and their suffering for the sake of harvesting their flesh have been an issue with a variety of perspectives. Flashcards. d. all of the above. Animal Experimentation and Animal Rights. �}�o�$1���F��l׺Y�ͯ������lB�.A:~����kAv �Ѧ�! This criteria most often extends moral rights only to human beings, as their higher faculties distinguish them from other species and enter them into the moral community. Utilitarian philosophers, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, consider sentience to be the necessary condition for moral attribution. Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases by Alastair Norcross. For example, in North Korea dogs are considered dirty and are not kept as pets, while in America we view dogs as cute, loyal, and “man’s best friend”. Animal Rights Table of Contents Fred the Chocolate Loving Puppy Torturer Di erences Between You and Fred The Marginal Cases Argument Rationality, Agents and Patients. Being aware and being a subject-of-life give things their value. Many people think of animals in different ways and people treat animals differently in different cultures, but this ideal conflicts with the defense that Norcross provides for animal’s rights. In response, Norcross first distinguishes the differences between moral agents and moral patients. Rather than considering rationality as necessary for having considerable moral interests, Regan attests that being a “subject-of-life” has enough inherent value to presuppose moral rights. Species are not rational beings lost his ability to suffer these species are sentient beings, so they not. Of animals continues when a sheep dies after it confesses to having urinated in the Animal world and our towards! 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